Aluminum has high mechanical strength, resistance to oxidation, hammering, flexible, ductile, stainless, electricity conductor, and is a good conductor for heat and is known as the second hammer metal and the sixth formable metal. Aluminum weighs about one-third the weight of steel, copper and brass, and is more resistant to acid and atmospheric factors than iron and copper. It is also very durable and corrosion resistant. In addition, it is the non-magnetic, non-sparking, second hammer and sixth flexible metal. Although aluminum is one of the newest common metals, it is one of the most widely used non-ferrous metals. The largest producer and consumer of aluminum in the world is China.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Aluminum:
Light weight: In an equal volume, aluminum weighs about one-third the weight of steel, copper, and brass. One cubic meter of aluminum weighs about 3 kg. While the weight of one cubic meter of steel is 2 kg. Light weight in aluminum artifacts is considered a very important advantage. Aluminum's light weight, in addition to reducing shipping costs, has made it competitive with steel.
High strength to weight ratio: A combination of high strength and light weight, there are only a few substances in nature. The high strength of some aluminum alloys is comparable to the strength of steel. This advantage has made aluminum widely used in the automotive, defense and military industries, aerospace, construction, transportation and packaging.
Ductility: Aluminum can be deformed by various metal forming methods. Aluminum comes in simple forms of pipes, rods, plates, foil and molding parts. For example, thin film of 2.5 mm is easily possible by rolling.
Aluminum can also be welded, soldered, glued and riveted.
Elasticity: Some aluminum alloys can regain their original state after removal of force if removed within a specific range. This aluminum feature in the design and manufacture of products that require strength and flexibility. Very used.
Corrosion resistance: The surface of aluminum parts does not rust because aluminum combines with air oxygen to produce a compact aluminum layer. This compact layer, which is only a few millimeters thick, prevents oxygen from contacting with the underlying aluminum substrates and prevents further oxidation of the fragment. Therefore, oxidizing the surfaces of aluminum parts prevents corrosion in various environments such as humid air, seawater and a wide range of other physical and chemical substances.
High thermal conductivity: Aluminum is the most conductive metal after silver, copper and gold, because of its property in the manufacture of kitchen utensils, oil and water heat exchangers.
Non-toxic: Aluminum solid alloys with a surface oxide layer are non-toxic and are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and health packaging industries. In addition, aluminum has a smooth, non-porous surface that prevents the absorption of foreign materials and bacteria.
Along with the aforementioned uses, aluminum is used in various forms in medicine and surgery. Aluminum powder is used for bleeding wounds and shortness of breath.
Electrical conductivity: In an equal volume, aluminum, such as copper, accounts for about 5 percent of its electricity. It has the highest electrical conductivity after silver, copper, and gold. But at a weight equal to aluminum, it can be twice as much as copper conductor electricity. As such, the use of aluminum in the transmission of electricity is very cost-effective. Because of this, aluminum is generally used in power stations and power plants.
Light reflection capability: Aluminum has the ability to reflect more than 2% of the visible light and invisible rays of the visible wavelength at both ends of the spectrum. This property is used in the manufacture of optical reflectors and in the protection of light, radio waves and infrared radiation. Light reflection capabilities in aluminum have made the metal applicable to solar batteries and electromagnetic transceivers and transmitters. Aluminum products must be polished after manufacture. To maximize their reflectivity.
Low specific gravity: One cubic meter of pure aluminum weighs 1.5 kg and one cubic meter of the heaviest aluminum alloy weighs about 5 kg. That is, the heaviest aluminum alloys are at least 5 kg / m3 lighter than the weight of other building metals. So this advantage can therefore: cheaper transportation - more capacity - save work - less inertia.
Non-magnetic: This feature is widely used in the manufacture of aluminum alloys for electrical and electronic applications such as adjacent equipment of high-strength magnetic fields, high-pressure hardware, equipment used in magnetic polarization, and magnetically sensitive devices.
Ignition Ignition: Although aluminum has very high electrical conductivity, it does not produce a spark. This very important property is used in vehicles used in combustible and explosive environments.